Seizures in Children

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Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders seen in children, with the highest incidence in the first year of life. Diagnostic accuracy can be challenging because many seizure mimics must be considered. Electroencephalography and neuroimaging can be critical in determining etiology and syndrome.

Genetic testing is a high-yield endeavor, particularly in early-life epilepsies. Up to one-fourth of children with epilepsy will develop drug-resistant seizures. Comorbidities are very common in children with epilepsy, including intellectual disability in 25% and learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a significant minority. These comorbidities must be recognized and addressed as part of the child’s overall care.

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